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Psychosom Med. 2014 Nov-Dec;76(9):709-15. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000114.

Life satisfaction and bone mineral density among postmenopausal women: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations.

Author information

1
From the Social Pharmacy (P.H.R.), School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland (UEF), Kuopio, Finland; Bone and Cartilage Research Unit (P.H.R., M.T.T., H.P.K., R.J.H.), Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, UEF, Kuopio, Finland; Institute of Clinical Medicine (H.K.-H.), Psychiatry, UEF, Kuopio, Finland; Clinic of Child Psychiatry (H.K.-H.), Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; Department of Psychiatry (H.K.-H.), Kuopio University Hospital (KUH), Kuopio, Finland; South-Savonia Hospital District (H.K.-H.), Mikkeli, Finland; North Karelia Central Hospital (H.K.-H.), Joensuu, Finland; SOSTERI (H.K.-H), Savonlinna, Finland; SOTE (H.K.-H), Iisalmi, Finland; Lapland Hospital District (H.K.-H.), Rovaniemi, Finland; University of Oulu (H.K.-H.), Oulu, Finland; School of Medicine (L.J.W.), Deakin University, Geelong, Australia; Department of Psychiatry (L.J.W.), The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia; Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (M.T.T.) and Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Handsurgery (H.P.K.), KUH, Kuopio, Finland; and Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition (R.J.H.), UEF, Kuopio, Finland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how global life satisfaction is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss.

METHODS:

A total of 2167 women from a cohort of Finnish women born in 1932 to 1941 were included in the cross-sectional and 1147 women in the 10-year longitudinal part of the present study. Participants responded to a postal enquiry and underwent femoral BMD densitometry in 1999 (baseline) and 2009 (follow-up). During the follow-up, their life satisfaction was repeatedly measured using a four-item scale. Self-reported data on health, life-style, and medication were used to adjust the multivariate linear regression models.

RESULTS:

Mean (standard deviation) femoral BMD decreased over the 10-year follow-up from 880 (125) to 846 (122) mg/cm. In the multivariate model, life satisfaction (p = .028) and its improvement (p = .001) predicted reduced bone loss, whereas hospitalization due to depression predicted increased bone loss (B = -0.523 annual % change, standard error = 0.212, p = .014). These effects were independent of each other.

CONCLUSIONS:

Easily assessed global life satisfaction should be taken into account when effects of aging and prevention of osteoporosis as well as health promotion in postmenopausal women are considered.

PMID:
25373893
DOI:
10.1097/PSY.0000000000000114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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