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J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2015 Aug;103(6):1328-32. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.33311. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

Progressive plateau root form dental implant osseointegration: A human retrieval study.

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Department of Dentistry, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
Department of Prosthodontics and Operative Dentistry, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
Department of Epidemiology, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, New York.
Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, New York.
Department of Dentistry, UNIGRANRIO, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Department of Prosthodontics, University of Sao Paulo, Bauru College of Dentistry, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil.
Department of Prosthodontics, Malmo University, Sweden.
Director for Research, Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, New York.
Affiliated Faculty, Division of Engineering, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.


Although preclinical and sparse human histology retrieval studies have shown that the interface between implant and bone is constantly remodeling, no human retrieval database has been developed to determine the effect of functional loading time and other clinical/implant design variables on osseointegration. The present study tested the hypothesis that bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO) increase over functional loading time around dental implants. Due to prosthetic retreatment reasons, 93 human implant retrievals from the same manufacturer (Bicon LLC, Boston, MA, USA) were obtained over a period of approximately 15 years. The retrieved implants were under functional loading from 120 days to ∼18 years and were histomorphologic/metrically evaluated. BIC/BAFO were assessed as a function of multiple independent variables: implant surface type, diameter, length, jaw (maxilla/mandible), region (anterior/posterior), and time of functional loading. The results showed that both BIC and BAFO increased over time independently of implant design/clinical variables, supporting the postulated hypothesis.


clinical; dental implant; histology; human retrieval; osseintegration

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