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EuroIntervention. 2016 Jan 22;11(9):1013-9. doi: 10.4244/EIJY14M10_09.

Fractional flow reserve and minimum Pd/Pa ratio during intravenous adenosine infusion: very similar but not always the same.

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Hospital Clinico San Carlos and Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain.



Maximum and stable hyperaemia are critical prerequisites for the accurate measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR). However, in some patients in whom hyperaemia is induced through a central vein (IV) the minimum distal coronary pressure to aortic pressure ratio (Pd/Pa ratio) develops before the stabilisation of hyperaemia. We sought to describe the prevalence, magnitude and clinical implications of this phenomenon.


The FFR tracing archive of a single institution was reviewed and a total of 104 high-quality IV-FFR recordings from 90 patients were identified. Whenever the minimum Pd/Pa ratio was found before the onset of stable hyperaemia, a search for the lowest Pd/Pa ratio within the steady-state hyperaemic plateau was performed and labelled as FFRstable. Whilst in most cases the minimum Pd/Pa ratio developed during stable hyperaemia, in 19 cases (prevalence of 18.3% [95% CI: 12.0% to 26.8%]) this value was found before the stabilisation of the hyperaemic state. In such cases, the minimum Pd/Pa ratio stabilised later at a higher level (0.77±0.09 vs. 0.81±0.08, p<0.001) (mean difference, 0.03±0.02, range, 0.01 to 0.10). In terms of dichotomous classification of stenosis severity and if FFRstable had been used to decide on revascularisation, reclassification would have occurred in three (2.9%) cases, all presenting a minimum Pd/Pa ratio ≤0.80 with FFRstable >0.80.


During IV adenosine infusion, the minimum Pd/Pa ratio occurs before the stabilisation of hyperaemia in a significant proportion of cases. While the overall difference between the minimum Pd/Pa ratio and its FFRstable counterpart is small, reclassification of stenosis severity might occur, if choosing between the minimum and stable values of FFR within the same trace.

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