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Ann Surg Oncol. 2015 Aug;22(8):2685-99. doi: 10.1245/s10434-014-4145-0. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

Consensus Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Guidelines from a Canadian National Expert Group.

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Department of Medicine, Odette Cancer Centre - Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada,


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare heterogeneous tumors that have been steadily increasing in both incidence and prevalence during the past few decades. Pancreatic NETs are categorized as functional (F) or nonfunctional (NF) based on their ability to secrete hormones that elicit clinically relevant symptoms. Specialized diagnostic tests are required for diagnosis. Treatment options are diverse and include surgical resection, intraarterial hepatic therapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Systemic therapy options include targeted agents as well as chemotherapy when indicated. Diagnosis and management should occur through a collaborative team of health care practitioners well-experienced in managing pNETs. Recent advances in pNET treatment options have led to the development of the Canadian consensus document described in this report. The discussion includes the epidemiology, classification, pathology, clinical presentation and prognosis, imaging and laboratory testing, medical and surgical management, and recommended treatment algorithms for pancreatic neuroendocrine cancers.

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