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Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Nov;18(6):760-71. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.141320.

Hyponatremia: A practical approach.

Author information

1
Department of Nephrology, Osmania Medical College and General Hospital, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Hyponatremia is an important and common clinical problem. The etiology is multifactorial. Hyponatremia may be euvolemic, hypovolemic or hypervolemic. Proper interpretation of the various laboratory tests helps to differentiate the various types of hyponatremia. Treatment varies with the nature of onset -acute or chronic, severity and symptoms. Normal saline forms the mainstay of treatment for hypovolemic hyponatremia while 3% NaCl and fluid restriction are important for euvolemic hyponatremia. Hypervolemic hyponatremia responds well to fluid restriction and diuretics. There have been several recent advances in the last year with revision in the guidelines for treatment and availability of vaptans. Judicious use of vaptans may help in treatment of hyponatremia.

KEYWORDS:

Hyponatremia-Euvolemic; SIADH; Vaptans; osmolality; osmotic demyelination

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