Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Atten Disord. 2017 Apr;21(6):455-464. doi: 10.1177/1087054714554933. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

High IQ May "Mask" the Diagnosis of ADHD by Compensating for Deficits in Executive Functions in Treatment-Naïve Adults With ADHD.

Author information

1
1 University of São Paulo, Brazil.
2
2 Mackenzie Presbyterian University, São Paulo, Brazil.
3
3 Clinical Psychiatrist, Private Practice, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate and compare the performance of adults with ADHD with high and standard IQ in executive functions (EF) tasks.

METHOD:

We investigated the neuropsychological performance of 51 adults with ADHD, compared with 33 healthy controls (HC) while performing a wide battery of neuropsychological tests that measure executive functioning. Adults with clinical diagnosis of ADHD were divided into two groups according to their IQ level (IQ ≥ 110-ADHD group with more elevated IQ, and IQ < 110-ADHD group with standard IQ).

RESULTS:

The ADHD group with standard IQ presented a worse executive functioning compared with the HC group in the following measures: Stroop 2 ( p = .000) and 3 ( p = .000), Trail Making Test (TMT) B ( p = .005), Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST)-perseverative errors ( p = .022) and failures to maintain set ( p = .020), Continuous Performance Test (CPT)-omission errors ( p = .005) and commission errors ( p = .000), and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB)-conceptualization ( p = .016). The ADHD group with more elevated IQ presented only impairments in the CPT-commission errors ( p = .019) when compared with the control group.

CONCLUSION:

Adults with ADHD and more elevated IQ show less evidence of executive functioning deficits compared with those with ADHD and standard IQ, suggesting that a higher degree of intellectual efficiency may compensate deficits in executive functions, leading to problems in establishing a precise clinical diagnosis.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; IQ; executive functioning

PMID:
25359760
DOI:
10.1177/1087054714554933
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center