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J Sci Food Agric. 2015 Aug 30;95(11):2292-8. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6949. Epub 2014 Oct 31.

Measuring the damage of heavy metal cadmium in rice seedlings by SRAP analysis combined with physiological and biochemical parameters.

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College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036, China.
Institute of Plant Protection and Microbiology, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou, 310021, China.
State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, 310006, China.



Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most poisonous pollutants, and Cd pollution has become the limiting factor of rice production and quality improvement. Therefore it is of significant importance to monitor Cd toxicity by the detection of Cd contamination in rice with biomarkers. In the present study, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and physiological and biochemical methods were applied to determine the toxicological effects of Cd stress on rice.


With increasing Cd concentration and duration, the content of chlorophyll in the two rice varieties W7 and M63 decreased and that of malondialdehyde increased. This tendency was more apparent in M63. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and peroxidase both increased significantly compared with controls. SRAP polymerase chain reaction results indicated significant differences between Cd treatments and controls in terms of SRAP profile, as well as genotypic differences. The genomic template stability (GTS) decreased with increasing Cd concentration and duration. Under the same treatment conditions, the GTS of W7 was higher than that of M63. Comparison analysis revealed that the changes in physiological and biochemical parameters of rice seedlings under Cd stress had a good correlation with the changes in SRAP profile. Furthermore, the changes in SRAP profile showed enhanced sensitivity in the roots of rice seedlings.


The SRAP profile and physiological and biochemical parameters could act as appropriate biomarkers for the measurement of Cd contamination during rice production.


GTS; SRAP; biomarker; cadmium; physiological parameters; rice

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