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Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2014 Aug;1(8):534-43. doi: 10.1002/acn3.81. Epub 2014 Jul 19.

Diagnostic accuracy of CSF Ab42 and florbetapir PET for Alzheimer's disease.

Author information

1
Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg Mölndal, Sweden ; Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, California ; Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases San Francisco, California.
2
Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, California.
3
Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute and School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, California.
4
Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Family & Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California.
5
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Institute on Aging, Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
6
Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg Mölndal, Sweden ; UCL Institute of Neurology Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom.
7
Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg Mölndal, Sweden.
8
Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, California ; Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases San Francisco, California.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) β-amyloid42 (Aβ42) and increased florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) uptake reflects brain Aβ accumulation. These biomarkers are correlated with each other and altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but no study has directly compared their diagnostic performance.

METHODS:

We examined healthy controls (CN, N = 169) versus AD dementia patients (N = 118), and stable (sMCI; no dementia, followed up for at least 2 years, N = 165) versus progressive MCI (pMCI; conversion to AD dementia, N = 59). All subjects had florbetapir PET (global and regional; temporal, frontal, parietal, and cingulate) and CSF Aβ42 measurements at baseline. We compared area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity (testing a priori and optimized cutoffs). Clinical diagnosis was the reference standard.

RESULTS:

CSF Aβ42 and (global or regional) PET florbetapir did not differ in AUC (CN vs. AD, CSF 84.4%; global PET 86.9%; difference [95% confidence interval] -6.7 to 1.5). CSF Aβ42 and global PET florbetapir did not differ in sensitivity, but PET had greater specificity than CSF in most comparisons. Sixteen CN progressed to MCI and AD (six Aβ negative, seven Aβ positive, and three PET positive but CSF negative).

INTERPRETATION:

The overall diagnostic accuracies of CSF Aβ42 and PET florbetapir were similar, but PET had greater specificity. This was because some CN and sMCI subjects appear pathological using CSF but not using PET, suggesting that low CSF Aβ42 not always translates to cognitive decline or brain Aβ accumulation. Other factors, including costs and side effects, may also be considered when determining the optimal modality for different applications.

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