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New Microbes New Infect. 2014 Jul;2(4):88-92. doi: 10.1002/nmi2.46. Epub 2014 Jun 27.

Multi-drug resistance and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from the Middle East and Central Asia.

Author information

1
Global Disease Detection and Response Program, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 PSC 452 Box 5000, Cairo, FPO AE 09835-9998, Egypt.
2
Central Public Health Laboratories Cairo, Egypt.
3
Global Disease Detection and Response Program, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 PSC 452 Box 5000, Cairo, FPO AE 09835-9998, Egypt ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA.

Abstract

Typhoid fever is common in developing countries, with an estimated 120 million infections and 700 000 annual deaths, worldwide. Fluoroquinolones have been the treatment of choice for infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). However, alarming reports of fluoroquinolone-resistance and failure of typhoid fever treatment have recently been published. To determine the proportion of S. Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (RSC) from six countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, 968 S. Typhi isolates collected between 2002 and 2007 from Egypt, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Qatar, Jordan and Iraq were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to five antibiotics using the disc-diffusion method. MDR was defined as resistance to amicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The E-test was employed to determine the MIC of ciprofloxacin only. Nalidixic acid resistance was evaluated as a marker for RSC. Interpretations were made according to CLSI guidelines. MDR strains were considerably more prevalent in Iraq (83%) and Pakistan (52%) compared with the other countries studied (13-52%). Nearly all isolates were susceptible (99.7%) to ceftriaxone. RSC was detected in a total of 218 isolates (22%), mostly from Iraq (54/59, 92%), Uzbekistan (98/123, 80%), Qatar (23/43, 54%) and Pakistan (31/65, 47%). Many of these (21%) were also MDR. Use of nalidixic acid resistance as an indicator for RSC was 99% sensitive and 98% specific. This study reinforces the need for routine antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance of enteric fever isolates and close review of current therapeutic policies in the region.

KEYWORDS:

Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility; Salmonella Typhi; fluoroquinolone resistance; multidrug-resistant typhoid; nalidixic acid resistance

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