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Sleep. 2015 Mar 1;38(3):487-97. doi: 10.5665/sleep.4516.

Lucid dreaming in narcolepsy.

Author information

1
Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France.
2
Brain Research Institute (CRICM - UPMC-Paris6; Inserm UMR_S 975; CNRS UMR 7225) Paris, France.
3
Sleep Disorders Unit, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital, APHP.
4
National Reference Center on Narcolepsy, France.
5
Department of Biostatistics, Salpêtrière Hospital, ER4, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy.

SETTINGS:

University hospital sleep disorder unit.

DESIGN:

Case-control study.

PARTICIPANTS:

Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls.

METHODS:

Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid.

RESULTS:

Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P < 0.05), with an average of 7.6±11 vs. 0.3±0.8 lucid dreams/ month (P < 0.0001). The frequency of cataplexy, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, dyssomnia, HLA positivity, and the severity of sleepiness were similar in narcolepsy with and without lucid dreaming. Seven of 12 narcoleptic (and 0 non-narcoleptic) lucid dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged.

CONCLUSION:

Narcolepsy is a novel, easy model for studying lucid dreaming.

KEYWORDS:

EEG coherence; REM sleep; dreaming; lucid dreaming; narcolepsy; spectral power

PMID:
25348131
PMCID:
PMC4335518
DOI:
10.5665/sleep.4516
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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