Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014 Dec;13(12):1571-91. doi: 10.1586/14760584.2014.966695. Epub 2014 Oct 28.

Potential of the test-negative design for measuring influenza vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review.

Author information

1
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity , 792 Elizabeth St, Melbourne VIC 3000 , Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The test-negative design is a variant of the case-control study being increasingly used to study influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). In these studies, patients with influenza-like illness are tested for influenza. Vaccine coverage is compared between those testing positive versus those testing negative to estimate VE.

OBJECTIVES:

We reviewed features in the design, analysis and reporting of 85 published test-negative studies.

DATA SOURCES:

Studies were identified from PubMed, reference lists and email updates. Study eligibility: All studies using the test-negative design reporting end-of-season estimates were included.

STUDY APPRAISAL:

Design features that may affect the validity and comparability of reported estimates were reviewed, including setting, study period, source population, case definition, exposure and outcome ascertainment and statistical model.

RESULTS:

There was considerable variation in the analytic approach, with 68 unique statistical models identified among the studies.

CONCLUSION:

Harmonization of analytic approaches may improve the potential for pooling VE estimates.

KEYWORDS:

case–control; influenza; public health; test-negative study; vaccine effectiveness

PMID:
25348015
PMCID:
PMC4277796
DOI:
10.1586/14760584.2014.966695
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center