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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Jan;24(1):213-20. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0786-T. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Do environmental factors modify the genetic risk of prostate cancer?

Author information

1
Department of Urology, New York University, New York, New York. Population Health, New York University, New York, New York. stacyloeb@gmail.com.
2
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
3
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.
4
Population Health, New York University, New York, New York.
5
Brady Urological Institute and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.
6
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. Brady Urological Institute and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown.

METHODS:

We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction.

RESULTS:

Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67-2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38-2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69-3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25-2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer.

IMPACT:

The effect of genetic factors on prostate cancer risk may vary by lifestyle interventions.

PMID:
25342390
PMCID:
PMC4337874
DOI:
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0786-T
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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