Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nature. 2014 Oct 23;514(7523):445-9. doi: 10.1038/nature13810.

Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia.

Author information

1
1] Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, IVPP, CAS, Beijing 100044, China [2] Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.
2
1] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
3
1] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.
4
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3140, USA.
5
Institute for Problems of the Development of the North, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tyumen 625026, Russia.
6
Expert Criminalistics Center, Omsk Division of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Omsk 644007, Russia.
7
Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
8
Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.
9
1] Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany [2] Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
10
1] Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany [2] Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7701, South Africa [3] Departament de Prehistòria i Arqueologia, Universitat de València, Valencia 46010, Spain [4] Research Group on Plant Foods in Hominin Dietary Ecology, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.
11
Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.
12
Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620144, Russia.
13
1] Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany [2] Laboratory of Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada.
14
Siberian Cultural Center, Omsk 644010, Russia.
15
1] Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany [2] Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501, USA.
16
Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.
17
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.
18
1] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
19
1] Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany [2] Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Abstract

We present the high-quality genome sequence of a ∼45,000-year-old modern human male from Siberia. This individual derives from a population that lived before-or simultaneously with-the separation of the populations in western and eastern Eurasia and carries a similar amount of Neanderthal ancestry as present-day Eurasians. However, the genomic segments of Neanderthal ancestry are substantially longer than those observed in present-day individuals, indicating that Neanderthal gene flow into the ancestors of this individual occurred 7,000-13,000 years before he lived. We estimate an autosomal mutation rate of 0.4 × 10(-9) to 0.6 × 10(-9) per site per year, a Y chromosomal mutation rate of 0.7 × 10(-9) to 0.9 × 10(-9) per site per year based on the additional substitutions that have occurred in present-day non-Africans compared to this genome, and a mitochondrial mutation rate of 1.8 × 10(-8) to 3.2 × 10(-8) per site per year based on the age of the bone.

PMID:
25341783
PMCID:
PMC4753769
DOI:
10.1038/nature13810
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center