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Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014 Aug 15;7(9):5968-77. eCollection 2014.

Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Chilean population.

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Unit of Histology and Embryology, Department of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of Talca (UTALCA) Talca, Maule Region, Chile ; Department of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil ; Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Brazilian Biosciences National Laboratory - CNPEM Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
Oral Pathology and Diagnosis, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Valparaíso Valparaíso, Valparaíso Region, Chile.
Morpho-physiopathology and Cytodiagnosis Laboratory, San Sebastián University (USS) Concepción, Bío-Bío Region, Chile.
Department of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil.
Unit of Oral Pathology, Department of Stomatology, University of Talca Talca, Maule Region, Chile ; Carlos Van Buren Hospital Valparaíso, Valparaíso Region, Chile.


In oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC and OPSCC) exist an association between clinical and histopathological parameters with cell proliferation, basal lamina, connective tissue degradation and surrounding stroma markers. We evaluated these associations in Chilean patients. A convenience sample of 37 cases of OCSCC (n=16) and OPSCC (n=21) was analyzed clinically (TNM, clinical stage) and histologically (WHO grade of differentiation, pattern of tumor invasion). We assessed the expression of p53, Ki67, HOXA1, HOXB7, type IV collagen (ColIV) and carcinoma-associated fibroblast (α-SMA-positive cells). Additionally we conducted a univariate/bivariate analysis to assess the relationship of these variables with survival rates. Males were mostly affected (56.2% OCSCC, 76.2% OPSCC). Patients were mainly diagnosed at III/IV clinical stages (68.8% OCSCC, 90.5% OPSCC) with a predominantly infiltrative pattern invasion (62.9% OCSCC, 57.1% OPSCC). Significant association between regional lymph nodes (N) and clinical stage with OCSCC-HOXB7 expression (Chi-Square test P < 0.05) was observed. In OPSCC a statistically significant association exists between p53, Ki67 with gender (Chi-Square test P < 0.05). In OCSCC and OPSCC was statistically significant association between ki67 with HOXA1, HOXB7, and between these last two antigens (Pearson's Correlation test P < 0.05). Furthermore OPSCC-p53 showed significant correlation when it was compared with α-SMA (Kendall's Tau-c test P < 0.05). Only OCSCC-pattern invasion and OPSCC-primary tumor (T) pattern resulted associated with survival at the end of the follow up period (Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio, P < 0.05). Clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features are similar to seen in other countries. Cancer proliferation markers were associated strongly from each other. Our sample highlights prognostic value of T and pattern of invasion, but the conclusions may be limited and should be considered with caution (small sample). Many cases were diagnosed in the advanced stages of the disease, which suggests that the diagnosis of OCSCC and OPSCC is made late.


HOX genes; Squamous cell carcinoma; TNM; carcinoma-associated fibroblast; ki67; oral cavity cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; p53; pattern of tumor invasion; type IV collagen

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