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Nat Commun. 2014 Oct 21;5:5257. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6257.

Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory.

Author information

1
1] School of Archaeology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland [2] Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland [3] Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
2
Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
3
Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Straße 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.
4
Dobó István Castle Museum, Vár utca 1, H-3300 Eger, Hungary.
5
JPAC-Central Identification Laboratory, 310 Worchester Avenue, Building. 45 Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Honalulu, Hawaii 96853-5530, USA.
6
Department of Anthropology, Hungarian Natural History Museum, Ludovika tér 2-6, 1083 Budapest, Hungary.
7
Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Humanities, Institute of Archaeological Sciences, Múzeum körút 4/b, H-1o88 Budapest, Hungary.
8
Department of Archaeology and Conservation, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3EU, UK.
9
Déri Museum, Déri tér 1, H-4026 Debrecen, Hungary.
10
Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, OX1 3QY Oxford, UK.
11
1] School of Archaeology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland [2] Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland [3] Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland [4] Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Abstract

The Great Hungarian Plain was a crossroads of cultural transformations that have shaped European prehistory. Here we analyse a 5,000-year transect of human genomes, sampled from petrous bones giving consistently excellent endogenous DNA yields, from 13 Hungarian Neolithic, Copper, Bronze and Iron Age burials including two to high (~22 × ) and seven to ~1 × coverage, to investigate the impact of these on Europe's genetic landscape. These data suggest genomic shifts with the advent of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with interleaved periods of genome stability. The earliest Neolithic context genome shows a European hunter-gatherer genetic signature and a restricted ancestral population size, suggesting direct contact between cultures after the arrival of the first farmers into Europe. The latest, Iron Age, sample reveals an eastern genomic influence concordant with introduced Steppe burial rites. We observe transition towards lighter pigmentation and surprisingly, no Neolithic presence of lactase persistence.

PMID:
25334030
PMCID:
PMC4218962
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms6257
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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