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PLoS One. 2014 Oct 15;9(10):e109849. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109849. eCollection 2014.

Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

Author information

1
Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States of America.
2
Sanford Research, Department of Children's Health Research Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, United States of America.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors.

DATA SOURCES:

PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:

Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included.

STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS:

Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up).

RESULTS:

Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

PMID:
25333384
PMCID:
PMC4198137
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0109849
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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