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PLoS One. 2014 Oct 20;9(10):e109434. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109434. eCollection 2014.

Dietary patterns differently associate with inflammation and gut microbiota in overweight and obese subjects.

Author information

1
INSERM, UMR_S U1166, Nutriomics, Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Paris, France; Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition (ICAN), Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Heart and Nutrition Department, and Human Nutrition Research Center-Ile de France, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.
2
Danone Research, RD 128, Palaiseau, France.
3
Danone Research, RD 128, Palaiseau, France; IT&M STATS, Paris, France.
4
Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition (ICAN), Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Heart and Nutrition Department, and Human Nutrition Research Center-Ile de France, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.
5
Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, WELBIO (Walloon Excellence in Life sciences and BIOTechnology), Metabolism and Nutrition Research group, Brussels, Belgium.
6
Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition (ICAN), Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Heart and Nutrition Department, and Human Nutrition Research Center-Ile de France, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France; Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Service de Biochimie et Hormonologie, Hôpital Tenon, Paris, France.
7
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR 1319 MICALIS, Jouy en Josas, France.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Associations between dietary patterns, metabolic and inflammatory markers and gut microbiota are yet to be elucidated.

OBJECTIVES:

We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in overweight and obese subjects and evaluate the different dietary patterns in relation to metabolic and inflammatory variables as well as gut microbiota.

DESIGN:

Dietary patterns, plasma and adipose tissue markers, and gut microbiota were evaluated in a group of 45 overweight and obese subjects (6 men and 39 women). A group of 14 lean subjects were also evaluated as a reference group.

RESULTS:

Three clusters of dietary patterns were identified in overweight/obese subjects. Cluster 1 had the least healthy eating behavior (highest consumption of potatoes, confectionary and sugary drinks, and the lowest consumption of fruits that was associated also with low consumption of yogurt, and water). This dietary pattern was associated with the highest LDL cholesterol, plasma soluble CD14 (p = 0.01) a marker of systemic inflammation but the lowest accumulation of CD163+ macrophages with anti-inflammatory profile in adipose tissue (p = 0.05). Cluster 3 had the healthiest eating behavior (lower consumption of confectionary and sugary drinks, and highest consumption of fruits but also yogurts and soups). Subjects in this Cluster had the lowest inflammatory markers (sCD14) and the highest anti-inflammatory adipose tissue CD163+ macrophages. Dietary intakes, insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory markers (plasma IL6) in Cluster 3 were close to those of lean subjects. Cluster 2 was in-between clusters 1 and 3 in terms of healthfulness. The 7 gut microbiota groups measured by qPCR were similar across the clusters. However, the healthiest dietary cluster had the highest microbial gene richness, as evaluated by quantitative metagenomics.

CONCLUSION:

A healthier dietary pattern was associated with lower inflammatory markers as well as greater gut microbiota richness in overweight and obese subjects.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01314690.

PMID:
25330000
PMCID:
PMC4203727
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0109434
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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