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J Food Sci Technol. 2014 Oct;51(10):2648-55. doi: 10.1007/s13197-012-0807-8. Epub 2012 Aug 26.

Influence of wheat kernel physical properties on the pulverizing process.

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Department of Thermal Technology, University of Life Sciences, Doświadczalna 44, 20-280 Lublin, Poland.
Division of Cereal Technology, Faculty of Food Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159C, 02-786 Warsaw, Poland.
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland.
Department of Systems and Economics of Crop Production, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.
Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Life Sciences, Skromna 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland.


The physical properties of wheat kernel were determined and related to pulverizing performance by correlation analysis. Nineteen samples of wheat cultivars about similar level of protein content (11.2-12.8 % w.b.) and obtained from organic farming system were used for analysis. The kernel (moisture content 10 % w.b.) was pulverized by using the laboratory hammer mill equipped with round holes 1.0 mm screen. The specific grinding energy ranged from 120 kJkg(-1) to 159 kJkg(-1). On the basis of data obtained many of significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between wheat kernel physical properties and pulverizing process of wheat kernel, especially wheat kernel hardness index (obtained on the basis of Single Kernel Characterization System) and vitreousness significantly and positively correlated with the grinding energy indices and the mass fraction of coarse particles (> 0.5 mm). Among the kernel mechanical properties determined on the basis of uniaxial compression test only the rapture force was correlated with the impact grinding results. The results showed also positive and significant relationships between kernel ash content and grinding energy requirements. On the basis of wheat physical properties the multiple linear regression was proposed for predicting the average particle size of pulverized kernel.


Grinding; Hardness; Physical properties; Pulverizing; Wheat

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