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J Neurotrauma. 2015 Dec 1;32(23):1902-10. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3526. Epub 2015 Feb 18.

Chronic Endocrinopathies in Traumatic Brain Injury Disease.

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1 Transitional Learning Center at Galveston , Galveston, Texas.
2 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch , Galveston, Texas.


The aim of this review was to explain the role played by pituitary hormonal deficiencies in the traumatic brain injury (TBI) disease process. Chronic dysfunction of the pituitary axis is observed in approximately 35% of individuals who sustain a moderate-to-severe TBI. The most common deficiency is that of growth hormone, followed by gonadotropin, cortisol, and thyroid. The medical, psychological, and psychiatric consequences of untreated hypopituitarism are extensive and can be devastating. Many of the consequences of a chronic symptomatic TBI have, in the past, been solely attributed to the brain injury per se. Analysis of the signs and symptoms of pituitary axis dysfunction suggests that many of these consequences can be attributed to post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTH). PTH may well play a significant role in the progressive signs and symptoms that follow a chronic TBI.


brain injury; hypopituitarism; medical; rehabilitation

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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