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Nat Rev Immunol. 2014 Nov;14(11):719-30. doi: 10.1038/nri3754. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

Atypical MHC class II-expressing antigen-presenting cells: can anything replace a dendritic cell?

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
2
Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Abstract

Dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells are regarded as the classical antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. However, in recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the number of cell types that are suggested to present antigens on MHC class II molecules to CD4(+) T cells. In this Review, we describe the key characteristics that define an antigen-presenting cell by examining the functions of dendritic cells. We then examine the functions of the haematopoietic cells and non-haematopoietic cells that can express MHC class II molecules and that have been suggested to represent 'atypical' antigen-presenting cells. We consider whether any of these cell populations can prime naive CD4(+) T cells and, if not, question the effects that they do have on the development of immune responses.

PMID:
25324123
DOI:
10.1038/nri3754
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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