Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Virol. 2015 Jan;89(1):120-8. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02129-14. Epub 2014 Oct 15.

The human CD8+ T cell responses induced by a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine are directed against highly conserved epitopes.

Author information

1
Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California, USA daniela@liai.org.
2
Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California, USA.
3
Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California, USA Genetech Research Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
4
University of Vermont College of Medicine and Vaccine Testing Center, Burlington, Vermont, USA.
5
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
6
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

The incidence of infection with any of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1 to -4) has increased dramatically in the last few decades, and the lack of a treatment or vaccine has contributed to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A recent comprehensive analysis of the human T cell response against wild-type DENV suggested an human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-linked protective role for CD8(+) T cells. We have collected one-unit blood donations from study participants receiving the monovalent or tetravalent live attenuated DENV vaccine (DLAV), developed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these donors were screened in gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays with pools of predicted, HLA-matched, class I binding peptides covering the entire DENV proteome. Here, we characterize for the first time CD8(+) T cell responses after live attenuated dengue vaccination and show that CD8(+) T cell responses in vaccinees were readily detectable and comparable to natural dengue infection. Interestingly, whereas broad responses to structural and nonstructural (NS) proteins were observed after monovalent vaccination, T cell responses following tetravalent vaccination were, dramatically, focused toward the highly conserved NS proteins. Epitopes were highly conserved in a vast variety of field isolates and able to elicit multifunctional T cell responses. Detailed knowledge of the T cell response will contribute to the identification of robust correlates of protection in natural immunity and following vaccination against DENV.

IMPORTANCE:

The development of effective vaccination strategies against dengue virus (DENV) infection and clinically significant disease is a task of high global public health value and significance, while also being a challenge of significant complexity. A recent efficacy trial of the most advanced dengue vaccine candidate, demonstrated only partial protection against all four DENV serotypes, despite three subsequent immunizations and detection of measurable neutralizing antibodies to each serotype in most subjects. These results challenge the hypothesis that seroconversion is the only reliable correlate of protection. Here, we show that CD8(+) T cell responses in vaccinees were readily detectable and comparable to natural dengue virus infection. Detailed knowledge of the T cell response may further contribute to the identification of robust correlates of protection in natural immunity and vaccination against DENV.

PMID:
25320311
PMCID:
PMC4301095
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.02129-14
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center