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J R Soc Interface. 2014 Dec 6;11(101):20140537. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2014.0537.

Calcifying tissue regeneration via biomimetic materials chemistry.

Author information

1
Department of Oral Biosciences, The University of Hong Kong, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China.
2
Oral Diagnosis and Polyclinics, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China.
3
Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.
4
Department of Oral Biosciences, The University of Hong Kong, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Oral Science Research Center, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea hsjung@yuhs.ac.

Abstract

Materials chemistry is making a fundamental impact in regenerative sciences providing many platforms for tissue development. However, there is a surprising paucity of replacements that accurately mimic the structure and function of the structural fabric of tissues or promote faithful tissue reconstruction. Methodologies in biomimetic materials chemistry have shown promise in replicating morphologies, architectures and functional building blocks of acellular mineralized tissues dentine, enamel and bone or that can be used to fully regenerate them with integrated cell populations. Biomimetic materials chemistry encompasses the two processes of crystal formation and mineralization of crystals into inorganic formations on organic templates. This review will revisit the successes of biomimetics materials chemistry in regenerative medicine, including coccolithophore simulants able to promote in vivo bone formation. In-depth knowledge of biomineralization throughout evolution informs the biomimetic materials chemist of the most effective techniques for regenerative framework construction exemplified via exploitation of liquid crystals (LCs) and complex self-organizing media. Therefore, a new innovative direction would be to create chemical environments that perform reaction-diffusion exchanges as the basis for building complex biomimetic inorganic structures. This has evolved widely in biology, as have LCs, serving as self-organizing templates in pattern formation of structural biomaterials. For instance, a study is highlighted in which artificially fabricated chiral LCs, made from bacteriophages are transformed into a faithful copy of enamel. While chemical-based strategies are highly promising at creating new biomimetic structures there are limits to the degree of complexity that can be generated. Thus, there may be good reason to implement living or artificial cells in 'morphosynthesis' of complex inorganic constructs. In the future, cellular construction is probably key to instruct building of ultimate biomimetic hierarchies with a totality of functions.

KEYWORDS:

bioinorganic materials chemistry; biomineralization; regenerative medicine

PMID:
25320063
PMCID:
PMC4223895
DOI:
10.1098/rsif.2014.0537
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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