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PLoS One. 2014 Oct 14;9(10):e109502. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109502. eCollection 2014.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in part via downregulated NF-κB and p38/JNK activation in microglial and attenuates microglia activation in lipopolysaccharide treatment mice.

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Institute of Orthopaedic Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.
Hong-Hui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University College of Medicine, Xi'an, China.
Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.


Therapeutic strategies designed to inhibit the activation of microglia may lead to significant advancement in the treatment of most neurodegenerative diseases. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a naturally occurring redox cofactor that acts as an essential nutrient, antioxidant, and has been reported to exert potent immunosuppressive effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of PQQ was investigated in LPS treated primary microglia cells. Our observations showed that pretreatment with PQQ significantly inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP-1a in LPS treated primary microglia cells. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation level of p65, p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways were also inhibited by PQQ in LPS stimulated primary microglia cells. Further a systemic LPS treatment acute inflammation murine brain model was used to study the suppressive effects of PQQ against neuroinflammation in vivo. Mice treated with PQQ demonstrated marked attenuation of neuroinflammation based on Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of Iba1-against antibody in the brain tissue. Indicated that PQQ protected primary cortical neurons against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. These results collectively suggested that PQQ might be a promising therapeutic agent for alleviating the progress of neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglia activation.

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