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Pediatrics. 2014 Nov;134(5):e1387-98. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1045. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Sociodemographic differences and infant dietary patterns.

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Division of Behavioral Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences,
Division of Behavioral Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences.
Research Institute on Addictions, and.
Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York.



To identify dietary patterns in US infants at age 6 and 12 months, sociodemographic differences in these patterns, and their associations with infant growth from age 6 to 12 months.


We analyzed a subsample (760 boys and 795 girls) of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2005-2007). Mothers reported their infants' intakes of 18 types of foods in the past 7 days, which were used to derive dietary patterns at ages 6 and 12 months by principal component analysis.


Similar dietary patterns were identified at ages 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, infants of mothers who had low education or non-Hispanic African American mothers (vs non-Hispanic white) had a higher score on "High sugar/fat/protein" dietary pattern. Both "High sugar/fat/protein" and "High dairy/regular cereal" patterns at 6 months were associated with a smaller increase in length-for-age z score (adjusted β per 1 unit dietary pattern score, -1.36 [95% confidence interval (CI), -2.35 to -0.37] and -0.30 [-0.54 to -0.06], respectively), while with greater increase in BMI z score (1.00 [0.11 to 1.89] and 0.32 [0.10 to 0.53], respectively) from age 6 to 12 months. The "Formula" pattern was associated with greater increase in BMI z score (0.25 [0.09 to 0.40]). The "Infant guideline solids" pattern (vegetables, fruits, baby cereal, and meat) was not associated with change in length-for-age or BMI z score.


Distinct dietary patterns exist among US infants, vary by maternal race/ethnicity and education, and have differential influences on infant growth. Use of "Infant guideline solids" with prolonged breastfeeding is a promising healthy diet for infants after age 6 months.


dietary patterns; epidemiology; feeding; growth; infant; nutrition

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