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Pediatr Res. 2015 Jan;77(1-2):143-7. doi: 10.1038/pr.2014.158. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Obesity-associated biomarkers and executive function in children.

Author information

1
1] Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan [2] Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
2
Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
3
1] Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan [2] Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan [3] Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Abstract

There is a growing focus on links between obesity and cognitive decline in adulthood, including Alzheimer's disease. It is also increasingly recognized that obesity in youth is associated with poorer cognitive function, specifically executive functioning skills such as inhibitory control and working memory, which are critical for academic achievement. Emerging literature provides evidence for possible biological mechanisms driven by obesity; obesity-associated biomarkers such as adipokines, obesity-associated inflammatory cytokines, and obesity-associated gut hormones have been associated with learning, memory, and general cognitive function. To date, examination of obesity-associated biology with brain function has primarily occurred in animal models. The few studies examining such biologically mediated pathways in adult humans have corroborated the animal data, but this body of work has gone relatively unrecognized by the pediatric literature. Despite the fact that differences in these biomarkers have been found in association with obesity in children, the possibility that obesity-related biology could affect brain development in children has not been actively considered. We review obesity-associated biomarkers that have shown associations with neurocognitive skills, specifically executive functioning skills, which have far-reaching implications for child development. Understanding such gut-brain associations early in the lifespan may yield unique intervention implications.

PMID:
25310758
PMCID:
PMC4416088
DOI:
10.1038/pr.2014.158
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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