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J Med Chem. 2014 Nov 13;57(21):9152-67. doi: 10.1021/jm501314c. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

Structural insights on carbonic anhydrase inhibitory action, isoform selectivity, and potency of sulfonamides and coumarins incorporating arylsulfonylureido groups.

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Laboratorio di Chimica Bioinorganica, Polo Scientifico, Università degli Studi di Firenze , Rm. 188, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy.


Sulfonamides and coumarins incorporating arylsulfonylureido tails were prepared and assayed as inhibitors of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC Some derivatives incorporating 3-pyridinesulfonamide and arylsulfonylureoido fragments were low nanomolar inhibitors of isoforms CA II and XII (upregulated or overexpressed in glaucoma) and showed effective in vivo intraocular pressure lowering effects in an animal model of the disease, which were several times better compared to those of the antiglaucoma drug dorzolamide. By means of X-ray crystallography of adducts of several sulfonamides with CA II, the effective inhibitory properties were rationalized at the molecular level. The coumarins were ineffective as hCA I and II inhibitors but showed low nanomolar activity for the inhibition of the tumor-associated isoforms hCA IX and XII. The presence of arylsulfonylureido tails in these CA inhibitors possessing quite different mechanisms of action led to highly effective and isoform-selective compounds targeting enzymes involved in severe pathologies such as glaucoma or cancer.

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