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J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:689492. doi: 10.1155/2014/689492. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

The central role of the gut microbiota in chronic inflammatory diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, ICB-1, Sao Paulo University, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
2
Department of Genetics, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
3
Department of Genetics, Evolution and Bioagents, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil.
4
Department of Biological Sciences, Section of Physiology and Pharmacology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, 09913-030 Diadema, SP, Brazil.
5
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, ICB-1, Sao Paulo University, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
6
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Abstract

The commensal microbiota is in constant interaction with the immune system, teaching immune cells to respond to antigens. Studies in mice have demonstrated that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota alters host immune cell homeostasis. Additionally, metagenomic-sequencing analysis has revealed alterations in intestinal microbiota in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and obesity. Perturbations in the microbiota composition result in a deficient immune response and impaired tolerance to commensal microorganisms. Due to altered microbiota composition which is associated to some inflammatory diseases, several strategies, such as the administration of probiotics, diet, and antibiotic usage, have been utilized to prevent or ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss recent evidence showing that the gut microbiota controls immune system function and onset, development, and resolution of some common inflammatory diseases.

PMID:
25309932
PMCID:
PMC4189530
DOI:
10.1155/2014/689492
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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