Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Aerosol Sci. 2014 Dec 1;78:11-29.

Variability in Nose-to-Lung Aerosol Delivery.

Author information

1
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.
2
Department of Pharmaceutics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.
3
Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.
4
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA ; Department of Pharmaceutics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.

Abstract

Nasal delivery of lung targeted pharmaceutical aerosols is ideal for drugs that need to be administered during high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) gas delivery, but based on previous studies losses and variability through both the delivery system and nasal cavity are expected to be high. The objective of this study was to assess the variability in aerosol delivery through the nose to the lungs with a nasal cannula interface for conventional and excipient enhanced growth (EEG) delivery techniques. A database of nasal cavity computed tomography (CT) scans was collected and analyzed, from which four models were selected to represent a wide range of adult anatomies, quantified based on the nasal surface area-to-volume ratio (SA/V). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods were validated with existing in vitro data and used to predict aerosol delivery through a streamlined nasal cannula and the four nasal models at a steady state flow rate of 30 L/min. Aerosols considered were solid particles for EEG delivery (initial 0.9 μm and 1.5 μm aerodynamic diameters) and conventional droplets (5 μm) for a control case. Use of the EEG approach was found to reduce depositional losses in the nasal cavity by an order of magnitude and substantially reduce variability. Specifically, for aerosol deposition efficiency in the four geometries, the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for 0.9 and 5 μm aerosols were 2.3-3.1 and 15.5-66.3%, respectively. Simulations showed that the use of EEG as opposed to conventional methods improved delivered dose of aerosols through the nasopharynx, expressed as penetration fraction (PF), by approximately a factor of four. Variability of PF, expressed by the coefficient of variation (CV), was reduced by a factor of four with EEG delivery compared with the control case. Penetration fraction correlated well with SA/V for larger aerosols, but smaller aerosols showed some dependence on nasopharyngeal exit hydraulic diameter. In conclusion, results indicated that the EEG technique not only improved lung aerosol delivery, but largely eliminated variability in both nasal depositional loss and lung PF in a newly developed set of nasal airway models.

KEYWORDS:

Nasal variability; controlled condensational growth; excipient enhanced growth; nasal aerosol deposition; respiratory drug delivery; submicrometer aerosols

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center