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J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Dec 4;11(12):1491-1503. doi: 10.1016/j.crohns.2014.09.008.

Cellular and Molecular Mediators of Intestinal Fibrosis.

Author information

1
Centre for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Fremantle Hospital, Fremantle, WA, Australia.
2
University Department of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Fremantle Hospital, Freemantle, WA, Australia.
3
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
4
Academic Department of Gastroenterology, Ethnikon and Kapodistriakon University of Athens, Laikon Hospital, Athens, Greece.
5
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
6
Department of General Internal Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
7
Research Group of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Artic University of Norway and University Hospital of Northern Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
8
General Surgery Unit, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
9
Department of Pediatrics, Tel-Aviv Souraski Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
10
National Institute of Health and Medical Research-INSERM, Unit U995, Lille, France.
11
Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, Gastroenterology Unit, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.

Abstract

Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and although inflammation is necessary for its development, it would appear that it plays a minor role in its progression as anti-inflammatory treatments in IBD do not prevent fibrosis once it has started. The processes that regulate fibrosis would thus appear to be distinct from those regulating inflammation and, therefore, a detailed understanding of these pathways is vital to the development of anti-fibrogenic strategies. There have been several recent reviews exploring what is known, and what remains unknown, about the development of intestinal fibrosis. This review is designed to add to this literature but with a focus on the cellular components that are involved in the development of fibrogenesis and the major molecular mediators that impact on these cells. The aim is to heighten the understanding of the factors involved in intestinal fibrogenesis so that detailed research can be encouraged in order to advance the processes that could lead to effective treatments.

KEYWORDS:

chemokine; extracellular matrix; fibroblast; growth factor; inflammatory bowel disease; interleukin; intestinal fibrosis; myofibroblast

PMID:
25306501
PMCID:
PMC5885809
DOI:
10.1016/j.crohns.2014.09.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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