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PLoS One. 2014 Oct 10;9(10):e108863. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108863. eCollection 2014.

7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging to detect cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis.

Author information

1
Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Section, Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America; Center for Neuroimaging Research, Kessler Foundation, West Orange, New Jersey, United States of America.
2
Center for Brain Research, Medical University, Vienna, Austria.
3
Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Section, Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
4
Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
5
Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America; Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Neocortical lesions (NLs) are an important pathological component of multiple sclerosis (MS), but their visualization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains challenging.

OBJECTIVES:

We aimed at assessing the sensitivity of multi echo gradient echo (ME-GRE) T2*-weighted MRI at 7.0 Tesla in depicting NLs compared to myelin and iron staining.

METHODS:

Samples from two MS patients were imaged post mortem using a whole body 7 T MRI scanner with a 24-channel receive-only array. Isotropic 200 micron resolution images with varying T2* weighting were reconstructed from the ME-GRE data and converted into R2* maps. Immunohistochemical staining for myelin (proteolipid protein, PLP) and diaminobenzidine-enhanced Turnbull blue staining for iron were performed.

RESULTS:

Prospective and retrospective sensitivities of MRI for the detection of NLs were 48% and 67% respectively. We observed MRI maps detecting only a small portion of 20 subpial NLs extending over large cortical areas on PLP stainings. No MRI signal changes suggestive of iron accumulation in NLs were observed. Conversely, R2* maps indicated iron loss in NLs, which was confirmed by histological quantification.

CONCLUSIONS:

High-resolution post mortem imaging using R2* and magnitude maps permits detection of focal NLs. However, disclosing extensive subpial demyelination with MRI remains challenging.

PMID:
25303286
PMCID:
PMC4193749
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0108863
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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