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Future Oncol. 2014 Aug;10(10):1779-94. doi: 10.2217/fon.14.97.

Adoptive cellular therapy of cancer: exploring innate and adaptive cellular crosstalk to improve anti-tumor efficacy.

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Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Massey Cancer Center, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.

Erratum in

  • Future Oncol. 2014 Oct;10(13):2098.


The mammalian immune system has evolved to produce multi-tiered responses consisting of both innate and adaptive immune cells collaborating to elicit a functional response to a pathogen or neoplasm. Immune cells possess a shared ancestry, suggestive of a degree of coevolution that has resulted in optimal functionality as an orchestrated and highly collaborative unit. Therefore, the development of therapeutic modalities that harness the immune system should consider the crosstalk between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems in order to elicit the most effective response. In this review, the authors will discuss the success achieved using adoptive cellular therapy in the treatment of cancer, recent trends that focus on purified T cells, T cells with genetically modified T-cell receptors and T cells modified to express chimeric antigen receptors, as well as the use of unfractionated immune cell reprogramming to achieve optimal cellular crosstalk upon infusion for adoptive cellular therapy.


NK and NKT cells; T cells; adoptive cellular therapy; cellular crosstalk; genetically modified T cells; homeostatic cytokines; lymphocyte reprogramming; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; tumor microenvironment; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

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