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Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2014 Oct;7(5):645-55. doi: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.114.001760. Epub 2014 Oct 7.

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: association with predisposing arteriopathies and precipitating stressors and cardiovascular outcomes.

Author information

1
From the Division of Cardiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC (J.S., T.S., A.S., D.R., G.B.J.M.); Division of Cardiology, St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC (E.A.); Division of Cardiology, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (C.E.B.); Division of Cardiology, Royal Jubilee Hospital, Victoria, BC (S.R.); Division of Cardiology, Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, BC (T.V.); and BC Centre for Improved Cardiovascular Health, UBC, Vancouver, BC (M.G., K.H.). jsaw@mail.ubc.ca.
2
From the Division of Cardiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC (J.S., T.S., A.S., D.R., G.B.J.M.); Division of Cardiology, St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC (E.A.); Division of Cardiology, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (C.E.B.); Division of Cardiology, Royal Jubilee Hospital, Victoria, BC (S.R.); Division of Cardiology, Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, BC (T.V.); and BC Centre for Improved Cardiovascular Health, UBC, Vancouver, BC (M.G., K.H.).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nonatherosclerotic spontaneous coronary artery dissection (NA-SCAD) is underdiagnosed and an important cause of myocardial infarction in young women. The frequency of predisposing and precipitating conditions and cardiovascular outcomes remains poorly described.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Patients with NA-SCAD prospectively evaluated (retrospectively or prospectively identified) at Vancouver General Hospital were included. Angiographic SCAD diagnosis was confirmed by 2 experienced interventional cardiologists and categorized as type 1 (multiple lumen), 2 (diffuse stenosis), or 3 (mimic atherosclerosis). Fibromuscular dysplasia screening of renal, iliac, and cerebrovascular arteries were performed with angiography or computed tomographic angiography/MR angiography. Baseline, predisposing and precipitating conditions, angiographic, revascularization, in-hospital, and long-term events were recorded. We prospectively evaluated 168 patients with NA-SCAD. Average age was 52.1±9.2 years, 92.3% were women (62.3% postmenopausal). All presented with myocardial infarction. ECG showed ST-segment elevation in 26.1%, and 3.6% had ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation arrest. Fibromuscular dysplasia was diagnosed in 72.0%. Precipitating emotional or physical stress was reported in 56.5%. Majority had type 2 angiographic SCAD (67.0%), only 29.1% had type 1, and 3.9% had type 3. The majority (134/168) were initially treated conservatively. Overall, 6 of 168 patients had coronary artery bypass surgery and 33 of 168 had percutaneous coronary intervention in-hospital. Of those treated conservatively (n=134), 3 required revascularization for SCAD extension, and all 79 who had repeat angiogram ≥26 days later had spontaneous healing. Two-year major adverse cardiac events were 16.9% (retrospectively identified group) and 10.4% (prospectively identified group). Recurrent SCAD occurred in 13.1%.

CONCLUSIONS:

Majority of patients with NA-SCAD had fibromuscular dysplasia and type 2 angiographic SCAD. Conservative therapy was associated with spontaneous healing. NA-SCAD survivors are at risk for recurrent cardiovascular events, including recurrent SCAD.

KEYWORDS:

coronary angiography; coronary artery dissection, spontaneous; fibromuscular dysplasia; myocardial infarction; women

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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