Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 21;111(42):E4485-93. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1415174111. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity.

Author information

1
Department of Adult Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium;
2
Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium;
3
Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium; Walloon Excellence in Life Sciences and BIOtechnology (WELBIO), 1300 Wavre, Belgium;
4
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium;
5
Laboratory of Hepato- and Gastroenterology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium;
6
Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium;
7
Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine and Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, S-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden; and.
8
Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine and Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, S-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden; and Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section for Metabolic Receptology and Enteroendocrinology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
9
Department of Adult Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium; philippe.detimary@uclouvain.be nathalie.delzenne@uclouvain.be.
10
Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium; philippe.detimary@uclouvain.be nathalie.delzenne@uclouvain.be.

Abstract

Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut-brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence.

KEYWORDS:

alcohol dependence; behavior; gut microbiota; gut permeability; gut–brain axis

PMID:
25288760
PMCID:
PMC4210345
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1415174111
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center