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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 21;111(42):E4478-84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1410293111. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

Human TLR10 is an anti-inflammatory pattern-recognition receptor.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine.
2
Department of Immune Therapeutics, Merck Research Laboratories, Oss 5342 CC, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Human Genetics.
4
Department of Microbiology, and.
5
Department of Tumour Immunology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525 GA, The Netherlands; and.
6
Department of Internal Medicine, leo.joosten@radboudumc.nl.

Abstract

Toll-like receptor (TLR)10 is the only pattern-recognition receptor without known ligand specificity and biological function. We demonstrate that TLR10 is a modulatory receptor with mainly inhibitory effects. Blocking TLR10 by antagonistic antibodies enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production, including IL-1β, specifically after exposure to TLR2 ligands. Blocking TLR10 after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pam3CSK4 (Pam3Cys) led to production of 2,065 ± 106 pg/mL IL-1β (mean ± SEM) in comparison with 1,043 ± 51 pg/mL IL-1β after addition of nonspecific IgG antibodies. Several mechanisms mediate the modulatory effects of TLR10: on the one hand, cotransfection in human cell lines showed that TLR10 acts as an inhibitory receptor when forming heterodimers with TLR2; on the other hand, cross-linking experiments showed specific induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, 16 ± 1.7 ng/mL, mean ± SEM). After cross-linking anti-TLR10 antibody, no production of IL-1β and other proinflammatory cytokines could be found. Furthermore, individuals bearing TLR10 polymorphisms displayed an increased capacity to produce IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 upon ligation of TLR2, in a gene-dose-dependent manner. The modulatory effects of TLR10 are complex, involving at least several mechanisms: there is competition for ligands or for the formation of heterodimer receptors with TLR2, as well as PI3K/Akt-mediated induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1Ra. Finally, transgenic mice expressing human TLR10 produced fewer cytokines when challenged with a TLR2 agonist. In conclusion, to our knowledge we demonstrate for the first time that TLR10 is a modulatory pattern-recognition receptor with mainly inhibitory properties.

KEYWORDS:

SNPs; TLR10; cytokines; immunology

PMID:
25288745
PMCID:
PMC4210319
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1410293111
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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