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Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2014;30:207-33. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100913-012915.

Intercellular protein movement: deciphering the language of development.

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Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; email: ,


Development in multicellular organisms requires the coordinated production of a large number of specialized cell types through sophisticated signaling mechanisms. Non-cell-autonomous signals are one of the key mechanisms by which organisms coordinate development. In plants, intercellular movement of transcription factors and other mobile signals, such as hormones and peptides, is essential for normal development. Through a combination of different approaches, a large number of non-cell-autonomous signals that control plant development have been identified. We review some of the transcriptional regulators that traffic between cells, as well as how changes in symplasmic continuity affect and are affected by development. We also review current models for how mobile signals move via plasmodesmata and how movement is inhibited. Finally, we consider challenges in and new tools for studying protein movement.


Arabidopsis development; cell-to-cell signaling; non-cell-autonomous proteins; plasmodesmata

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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