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BMC Res Notes. 2014 Oct 7;7:694. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-694.

Co-existence of beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from Kathmandu, Nepal.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. badri_bishal@yahoo.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The trend of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is increasing in Nepal. Limited studies have been reported investigating ESBL types and carbapenemases in E. coli.

METHODS:

A cross sectional study was conducted between June 2012 to January 2013 in Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Nepal. Non-repetitive clinical samples from out-patient department (OPD) and Intensive Care Units (ICU) were processed for bacteriological culture and identification of E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibility test, screening and phenotypic confirmation for ESBLs and carbapenemases and PCR (blaCTX-M, blaSHV and blaTEM-type ESBLs, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaNDM-1-type carbapenemases, and class 1 integron element integrase gene) were performed. Clones were resolved by PCR-Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA.

RESULTS:

Out of 332 non-repetitive clinical specimens processed for culture and identification 160 (48.2%) were culture positive. Of which, 93 (58.1%) were E. coli. Of these, 24 (25.8%) were phenotypically confirmed as ESBL-EC and 3 (12.50%) of 24 ESBL-EC were carbapenemase producers. blaCTX-M-type ESBL was most common (23, 95.8%) followed by blaTEM (7, 29.2%) and blaSHV (3, 12.5%). blaVIM, blaIMP and blaNDM-1 were present in 3, 2 and 2 ESBL-EC, respectively. Class 1 integron element was present in 18 (75.0%) ESBL-EC. Nine isolates possessed more than one type of beta-lactamases. Interestingly, all carbapenemase producers were isolated form ICU and co-existence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaIMP, blaVIM and blaNDM-1 beta-lactamases was documented in one ESBL-EC (EC104). All most all isolates had different RAPD patterns.

CONCLUSIONS:

For the first time in Nepal, high prevalence of blaCTX-M-type ESBL and co-existence of ESBLs and carbapenemases has been described. Continuous monitoring and surveillance and proper infection control and prevention practices will limit the further spread of these super-bugs within this hospital and beyond.

PMID:
25287013
PMCID:
PMC4197279
DOI:
10.1186/1756-0500-7-694
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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