Format

Send to

Choose Destination
JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Dec;174(12):1894-901. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4887.

β-Lactam monotherapy vs β-lactam-macrolide combination treatment in moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized noninferiority trial.

Author information

1
Division of General Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland2Division of Internal Medicine, Hôpital Riviera-Chablais, Monthey, Switzerland.
2
Division of Internal Medicine, Hôpital Neuchâtelois-La Chaux-de-Fonds, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland.
3
Division of General Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.
4
Division of Internal Medicine, Hôpital Cantonal, Fribourg, Switzerland.
5
Division of Internal Medicine, Triemlispital, Zurich, Switzerland.
6
Emergency Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.
7
Division of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.
8
Division of Internal Medicine, Hôpital du Valais, Sion, Switzerland.
9
Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.
10
Emergency Department, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.
11
Division of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

The clinical benefit of adding a macrolide to a β-lactam for empirical treatment of moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia remains controversial.

OBJECTIVE:

To test noninferiority of a β-lactam alone compared with a β-lactam and macrolide combination in moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

Open-label, multicenter, noninferiority, randomized trial conducted from January 13, 2009, through January 31, 2013, in 580 immunocompetent adult patients hospitalized in 6 acute care hospitals in Switzerland for moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia. Follow-up extended to 90 days. Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation.

INTERVENTIONS:

Patients were treated with a β-lactam and a macrolide (combination arm) or with a β-lactam alone (monotherapy arm). Legionella pneumophila infection was systematically searched and treated by addition of a macrolide to the monotherapy arm.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Proportion of patients not reaching clinical stability (heart rate <100/min, systolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg, temperature <38.0°C, respiratory rate <24/min, and oxygen saturation >90% on room air) at day 7.

RESULTS:

After 7 days of treatment, 120 of 291 patients (41.2%) in the monotherapy arm vs 97 of 289 (33.6%) in the combination arm had not reached clinical stability (7.6% difference, P = .07). The upper limit of the 1-sided 90% CI was 13.0%, exceeding the predefined noninferiority boundary of 8%. Patients infected with atypical pathogens (hazard ratio [HR], 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13-0.85) or with Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) category IV pneumonia (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.59-1.10) were less likely to reach clinical stability with monotherapy, whereas patients not infected with atypical pathogens (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.80-1.22) or with PSI category I to III pneumonia (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.82-1.36) had equivalent outcomes in the 2 arms. There were more 30-day readmissions in the monotherapy arm (7.9% vs 3.1%, P = .01). Mortality, intensive care unit admission, complications, length of stay, and recurrence of pneumonia within 90 days did not differ between the 2 arms.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

We did not find noninferiority of β-lactam monotherapy in patients hospitalized for moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia. Patients infected with atypical pathogens or with PSI category IV pneumonia had delayed clinical stability with monotherapy.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00818610.

PMID:
25286173
DOI:
10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4887
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for University of Lausanne/CHUV - Serval
Loading ...
Support Center