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Heart Rhythm. 2015 Jan;12(1):95-103. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.10.002. Epub 2014 Oct 5.

Use of a novel fragmentation map to identify the substrate for ventricular tachycardia in postinfarction cardiomyopathy.

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Electrophysiology Section, Department of Cardiology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain.
Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco; San Francisco California. Electronic address:



Substrate ablation is commonly performed in patients with postinfarction cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Recognition of fragmented and late potentials during sinus rhythm is a tedious process subject to operator fatigue.


The purpose of this study was to assess the value of automated analysis to quantify electrogram fragmentation and to determine the relationship of fragmented regions to the VT isthmus.


Detailed left ventricular (LV) mapping was performed in 2 groups: (1) 14 patients with previous myocardial infarction and tolerated VT and (2) 14 controls with structurally normal hearts. In patients with VT, mid-isthmus sites were identified using entrainment mapping. Sinus rhythm endocardial LV electrograms underwent time- and frequency-domain analysis and were displayed as fragmentation or frequency maps. The region of fractionated electrograms and their relation to the VT isthmus sites were determined.


Cutoffs for abnormal electrogram fragmentation were ventricular fractionation index ≥ 7 and fast Fourier transform ratio ≥ 14%, respectively. In the time domain, LV surface area with fractionated electrograms was significantly smaller than the total scar surface area (27.3% ± 7.1% vs 42.1% ± 12.3%, P <.001), yet contained 100% of VT isthmus sites. In the frequency domain, areas of abnormal fractionation occupied 9.7% ± 6.9% of total LV surface area and included only 60% of the VT isthmus sites.


Automated electrogram fractionation analysis represents an objective tool to rapidly quantify electrogram fragmentation and guide substrate-based ablation of VT. Empiric ablation of these regions may be a new strategy for substrate-guided VT ablation.


Ablation; Cardiomyopathy; Fourier transform; Fragmentation; Mapping; Ventricular tachycardia

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