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Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Dec;23(2):505-15. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2014.09.026. Epub 2014 Oct 3.

Arctigenin but not arctiin acts as the major effective constituent of Arctium lappa L. fruit for attenuating colonic inflammatory response induced by dextran sulfate sodium in mice.

Author information

1
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Diseases, Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, China.
2
Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, China.
3
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Diseases, Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address: yfxiacpu@126.com.
4
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Diseases, Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address: yuedaicpu@hotmail.com.

Abstract

The crude powder of the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (ALF) has previously been reported to attenuate experimental colitis in mice. But, its main effective ingredient and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. In this study, ALF was extracted with ethanol, and then successively fractionated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fraction. Experimental colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Among the four fractions of ALF, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the most significant inhibition of DSS-induced colitis in mice. The comparative studies of arctigenin and arctiin (the two main ingredients of ethyl acetate fraction) indicated that arctigenin rather than arctiin could reduce the loss of body weight, disease activity index and histological damage in the colon. Arctigenin markedly recovered the loss of intestinal epithelial cells (E-cadherin-positive cells) and decreased the infiltration of neutrophils (MPO-positive cells) and macrophages (CD68-positive cells). Arctigenin could down-regulate the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1, MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at both protein and mRNA levels in colonic tissues. Also, it markedly decreased the MDA level, but increased SOD activity and the GSH level. Of note, the efficacy of arctigenin was comparable or even superior to that of the positive control mesalazine. Moreover, it significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the activation of NF-κB, including phosphorylation of IκBα and p65, p65 translocation and DNA binding activity. In conclusion, arctigenin but not arctiin is the main active ingredient of ALF for attenuating colitis via down-regulating the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

KEYWORDS:

Arctigenin; Arctium lappa L.; Dextran sulfate sodium; NF-κB; Ulcerative colitis

PMID:
25284342
DOI:
10.1016/j.intimp.2014.09.026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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