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Clin Anat. 2015 Apr;28(3):293-304. doi: 10.1002/ca.22471. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

Anatomy of sex: Revision of the new anatomical terms used for the clitoris and the female orgasm by sexologists.

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Centro Italiano di Sessuologia (CIS), Via Regnoli 74, 40138, Bologna, Italy.


Sexual medicine experts and sexologists must spread certainties on the biological basis of the female orgasm to all women, not hypotheses or personal opinions. Therefore, they must use scientific anatomical terminology. The anatomy of the clitoris and the female orgasm are described in textbooks, but some researchers have proposed a new anatomical terminology for the sexual response in women. The internal/inner clitoris does not exist: the entire clitoris is an external organ. The clitoris is not composed of two arcs but of the glans, body, and crura or roots. "Clitoral bulbs" is an incorrect term from an embryological and anatomical viewpoint: the correct term is "vestibular bulbs." The bulbocavernosus muscles are implicated in inferior vaginismus, while the pubovaginal muscle is responsible for superior vaginismus. The clitoral or clitoris-urethro-vaginal complex has no embryological, anatomical and physiological support: the vagina has no anatomical relationship with the clitoris, and the clitoris is a perineal organ while the supposed G-spot is in the pelvic urethra. G-spot/vaginal/clitoral orgasm, vaginally activated orgasm, and clitorally activated orgasm, are incorrect terms: like "male orgasm," "female orgasm" is the correct term. The "vaginal" orgasm that some women report is always caused by the surrounding erectile organs (triggers of female orgasm). The male penis cannot come in contact with the venous plexus of Kobelt or with the clitoris during vaginal intercourse. Also, female ejaculation, premature ejaculation, persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD), periurethral glans, vaginal-cervical genitosensory component of the vagus nerve, and G-spot amplification, are terms without scientific basis. Female sexual satisfaction is based on orgasm and resolution: in all women, orgasm is always possible if the female erectile organs, i.e. the female penis, are effectively stimulated during masturbation, cunnilingus, partner masturbation, or during vaginal/anal intercourse if the clitoris is simply stimulated with a finger. Clin. Anat. 28:293-304, 2015.


G-spot; G-spot amplification; clitoral complex; clitoris; female sexual function; vaginal orgasm

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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