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Plant Physiol Biochem. 2014 Nov;84:169-188. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2014.09.006. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Apples: content of phenolic compounds vs. variety, part of apple and cultivation model, extraction of phenolic compounds, biological properties.

Author information

1
Division of Chemistry, Bialystok University of Technology, 29 Zamenhofa Str., 15-435 Bialystok, Poland. Electronic address: m.kalinowska@pb.edu.pl.
2
Department of Physical Chemistry, Medical University of Bialystok, 2B Mickiewicza Str., 15-089 Bialystok, Poland.
3
Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Centre for Radiobiology and Biological Dosimetry, 16 Dorodna Str., 03-195 Warsaw, Poland.
4
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
5
Division of Chemistry, Bialystok University of Technology, 29 Zamenhofa Str., 15-435 Bialystok, Poland.

Abstract

Apples are among the most popular fruits in the world. They are rich in phenolic compounds, pectin, sugar, macro- and microelements. Applying different extraction techniques it is possible to isolate a particular group of compounds or individual chemicals and then test their biological properties. Many reports point to the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer and many other beneficial effects of apple components that may have potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This paper summarizes and compiles information about apple phenolic compounds, their biological properties with particular emphasis on health-related aspects. The data are reviewed with regard to different apple varieties, part of apple, cultivation model and methods of extraction.

KEYWORDS:

Antimicrobial; Antioxidant; Apple; Chemopreventive; Cultivation model; Extraction method; Phenolic compounds

PMID:
25282014
DOI:
10.1016/j.plaphy.2014.09.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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