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Nutrition. 2014 Nov-Dec;30(11-12):1331-6. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.03.019. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Carbohydrate and glutamine supplementation modulates the Th1/Th2 balance after exercise performed at a simulated altitude of 4500 m.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil; Postgraduate Nutrition, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil.
2
Department of Physiology, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Psychobiology, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Physical Education, State University of São Paulo, Brazil.
3
Department of Physiology, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Psychobiology, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil.
4
Department of Psychobiology, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Bioscience, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: Ronaldo.thomatieli@unifesp.br.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrate or glutamine supplementation, or a combination of the two, on the immune system and inflammatory parameters after exercise in simulated hypoxic conditions at 4500 m.

METHODS:

Nine men underwent three sessions of exercise at 70% VO2peak until exhaustion as follows: 1) hypoxia with a placebo; 2) hypoxia with 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min) during exercise and for 2 h after; and 3) hypoxia after 6 d of glutamine supplementation (20 g/d) and supplementation with 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min) during exercise and for 2 h after. All procedures were randomized and double blind. Blood was collected at rest, immediately before exercise, after the completion of exercise, and 2 h after recovery. Glutamine, cortisol, cytokines, glucose, heat shock protein-70, and erythropoietin were measured in serum, and the cytokine production from lymphocytes was measured.

RESULTS:

Erythropoietin and interleukin (IL)-6 increased after exercise in the hypoxia group compared with baseline. IL-6 was higher in the hypoxia group than pre-exercise after exercise and after 2 h recovery. Cortisol did not change, whereas glucose was elevated post-exercise in the three groups compared with baseline and pre-exercise. Glutamine increased in the hypoxia + carbohydrate + glutamine group after exercise compared with baseline. Heat shock protein-70 increased post-exercise compared with baseline and pre-exercise and after recovery compared with pre-exercise, in the hypoxia + carbohydrate group. No difference was observed in IL-2 and IL-6 production from lymphocytes. IL-4 was reduced in the supplemented groups.

CONCLUSION:

Carbohydrate or glutamine supplementation shifts the T helper (Th)1/Th2 balance toward Th1 responses after exercise at a simulated altitude of 4500 m. The nutritional strategies increased in IL-6, suggesting an important anti-inflammatory effect.

KEYWORDS:

High altitude; Immune function; Inflammation; Lymphocytes; Physical exercise

PMID:
25280408
DOI:
10.1016/j.nut.2014.03.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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