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Vet Microbiol. 2014 Nov 7;174(1-2):60-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.09.002. Epub 2014 Sep 22.

Pathogenesis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus isolate (US/Iowa/18984/2013) in 3-week-old weaned pigs.

Author information

1
Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States. Electronic address: madson@iastate.edu.
2
Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.
3
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.
4
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.
5
Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States; Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.
6
Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States; Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States. Electronic address: kyoon@iastate.edu.

Abstract

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is associated with clinical diarrhea in naïve swine of all ages. This report describes timing of antibody generation and disease progression following infection with a US PEDV isolate by assessing fecal viral shedding, morphometric analysis of intestinal lesions, and magnitude of immunohistochemical staining. Sixty-three, 3-week-old pigs were randomly allocated into control (n=27) and challenged (n=36) groups. Challenged pigs were administered 1 mL of 1 × 10(3) PFU/mL of US/Iowa/18984/2013 PEDV isolate by oro-gastric gavage. Three control and four challenged pigs were necropsied on days post-inoculation (dpi) 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and weekly thereafter, until study termination on dpi 35. Clinical disease, fecal shedding, body weight, and temperature were monitored during the study period. Diarrhea was observed in challenged pigs beginning for some on dpi 2, affecting a majority of pigs by dpi 6 and subsiding by dpi 10. Average daily gain was significantly lower (P<0.001) for one week post-infection in challenged pigs. PEDV was detected in feces by PCR on dpi 1 and continued in a subset of pigs until dpi 24. PEDV-specific antigen was detected in villous enterocytes of challenged pigs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on dpi 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14. Microscopic lesions included severe diffuse atrophic enteritis with significantly reduced (P<0.001) villous length observed on dpi 3, 4, and 7. Under the conditions of this study, fecal shedding of PEDV and IHC staining can precede and continue beyond the observation of clinical signs, thus increasing the risk of viral transmission.

KEYWORDS:

Antibody; Immunohistochemistry; Pathogenesis; Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; Shedding

PMID:
25278366
DOI:
10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.09.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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