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Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2014 Aug;4(4):307-13. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2223-3652.2014.07.01.

Cardiac imaging in prosthetic paravalvular leaks.

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Department of Cardiovascular, University Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.


Prosthetic paravalvular leaks (PVL) is an uncommon but serious complication after surgical valve replacement. Although surgery has been the traditional treatment of choice in hemodynamically significant PVL, percutaneous transcatheter closure is emerging as a novel and less invasive option for patients with high operative risk. Cardiac imaging, especially two- and three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography, plays an essential role in the diagnosis, guidance of intervention and subsequently in the evaluation of the outcomes of the procedure. The aim of this manuscript is to review the role of cardiac imaging techniques in the interventional management of patients with symptomatic PVL.


3D-echocardiography; Paravalvular leak (PVL); percutaneous closure; valvular prosthesis

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