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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014 Oct 1;4(10). pii: a015750. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a015750.

Heart fields and cardiac morphogenesis.

Author information

1
Aix Marseille University, CNRS, IBDM UMR 7288, 13288 Marseilles, France.
2
Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, URA CNRS 2578, Pasteur Institute, 75015 Paris, France.
3
Department of Anatomy, Embryology & Physiology, Academic Medical Centre, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

In this review, we focus on two important steps in the formation of the embryonic heart: (i) the progressive addition of late differentiating progenitor cells from the second heart field that drives heart tube extension during looping morphogenesis, and (ii) the emergence of patterned proliferation within the embryonic myocardium that generates distinct cardiac chambers. During the transition between these steps, the major site of proliferation switches from progenitor cells outside the early heart to proliferation within the embryonic myocardium. The second heart field and ballooning morphogenesis concepts have major repercussions on our understanding of human heart development and disease. In particular, they provide a framework to dissect the origin of congenital heart defects and the regulation of myocardial proliferation and differentiation of relevance for cardiac repair.

PMID:
25274757
PMCID:
PMC4200205
DOI:
10.1101/cshperspect.a015750
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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