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Cardiovasc Res. 2014 Dec 1;104(3):388-98. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvu215. Epub 2014 Oct 1.

Id proteins in the vasculature: from molecular biology to cardiopulmonary medicine.

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Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 5 DongdanSantiao, Beijing 100005, China
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Central South University, Changsha, China.
Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Level 5, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK


The inhibitors of differentiation (Id) proteins belong to the helix-loop-helix group of transcription factors and regulate cell differentiation and proliferation. Recent studies have reported that Id proteins play important roles in cardiogenesis and formation of the vasculature. We have also demonstrated that heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) patients have dysregulated Id gene expression in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. The interaction between bone morphogenetic proteins and other growth factors or cytokines regulates Id gene expression, which impacts on pulmonary vascular cell differentiation and proliferation. Exploration of the roles of Id proteins in vascular remodelling that occurs in PAH and atherosclerosis might provide new insights into the molecular basis of these diseases. In addition, current progress in identification of the interactors of Id proteins will further the understanding of the function of Ids in vascular cells and enable the identification of novel targets for therapy in PAH and other cardiovascular diseases.


Id; Inhibitor of DNA binding; PAH; Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Vasculature

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