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J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015 Feb;60(2):272-83. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000586.

Intestinal failure-associated liver disease: a position paper of the ESPGHAN Working Group of Intestinal Failure and Intestinal Transplantation.

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*Hepatogastroenterology-Nutrition Unit, Hôpital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris, France †Liver Unit and Small Bowel Transplantation, Birmingham's Children Hospital, Birmingham, UK ‡Paediatric Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Transplantation, Hospital Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy §Institute of Gastroenterology, Nutrition and Liver Diseases, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel ||Children's Hospital, University of Zagreb Medical School, Zagreb, Croatia ¶Children's Hospital, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK.


Intestinal failure-associated liver disease is the most prevalent complication affecting children with intestinal failure receiving long-term parenteral nutrition. This paper reviews the definition, diagnostic criteria, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The authors discuss the role of enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, and its components, especially lipid emulsions. The authors also discuss the surgical treatment, including intestinal transplantation, its indications, technique, and results, and emphasise the importance of specialised intestinal failure centres.

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