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Health Phys. 2014 Nov;107(5):369-81. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000129.

Quantification of RF-exposure of the fetus using anatomical CAD-models in three different gestational stages.

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*Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT'IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zürich, Switzerland; †Schmid & Partner Engineering AG (SPEAG), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zürich, Switzerland; ‡Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section Hyperthermia, PO box 5201, NL-3008 AE, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; §ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.


This study analyzes the exposure of pregnant women and their fetuses in three different gestational stages to electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency range in the near- and the far-field using numerical modeling. For far-field exposure, the power density at which the basic restriction for the whole body SAR is reached is calculated for both the mother and the fetus at whole body resonance and at frequencies between 450 MHz and 2,450 MHz. The near-field exposure is assessed at 450 MHz, 900 MHz, and 2,450 MHz using half wavelength dipoles as generic sources located at different locations around the abdomen of the mother. For the investigated cases, the exposure of the mother is always below or on the order of magnitude of the basic restriction for exposure at the reference level. When applying the reference levels for the general public, the fetus is sufficiently shielded by the mother. However, the basic restrictions for general public exposure can be exceeded in the fetus when the mother is exposed at reference levels for occupational conditions. For plane wave exposure at occupational levels, the whole body SAR in the fetus can exceed the basic restrictions for the general population by at least 1.8 dB, and in the near-field of professional devices, the 10 g SAR can be non-compliant with the product standard for the general public by > 3.5 dB.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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