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Plant Cell. 2014 Sep;26(9):3616-29. doi: 10.1105/tpc.114.130112. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

Resolving distinct genetic regulators of tomato leaf shape within a heteroblastic and ontogenetic context.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Biology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616.
2
Department of Statistics, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616.
3
Department of Plant Biology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 nrsinha@ucdavis.edu.

Abstract

Leaf shape is mutable, changing in ways modulated by both development and environment within genotypes. A complete model of leaf phenotype would incorporate the changes in leaf shape during juvenile-to-adult phase transitions and the ontogeny of each leaf. Here, we provide a morphometric description of >33,000 leaflets from a set of tomato (Solanum spp) introgression lines grown under controlled environment conditions. We first compare the shape of these leaves, arising during vegetative development, with >11,000 previously published leaflets from a field setting and >11,000 leaflets from wild tomato relatives. We then quantify the changes in shape, across ontogeny, for successive leaves in the heteroblastic series. Using principal component analysis, we then separate genetic effects modulating (1) the overall shape of all leaves versus (2) the shape of specific leaves in the series, finding the former more heritable than the latter and comparing quantitative trait loci regulating each. Our results demonstrate that phenotype is highly contextual and that unbiased assessments of phenotype, for quantitative genetic or other purposes, would ideally sample the many developmental and environmental factors that modulate it.

PMID:
25271240
PMCID:
PMC4213164
DOI:
10.1105/tpc.114.130112
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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