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Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2014 Dec;165B(8):673-83. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32272. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

Association and ancestry analysis of sequence variants in ADH and ALDH using alcohol-related phenotypes in a Native American community sample.

Author information

  • 1Department of Human Biology, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, California; Scripps Translational Science Institute, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California.

Abstract

Higher rates of alcohol use and other drug-dependence have been observed in some Native American (NA) populations relative to other ethnic groups in the US. Previous studies have shown that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes may affect the risk of development of alcohol dependence, and that polymorphisms within these genes may differentially affect risk for the disorder depending on the ethnic group evaluated. We evaluated variations in the ADH and ALDH genes in a large study investigating risk factors for substance use in a NA population. We assessed ancestry admixture and tested for associations between alcohol-related phenotypes in the genomic regions around the ADH1-7 and ALDH2 and ALDH1A1 genes. Seventy-two ADH variants showed significant evidence of association with a severity level of alcohol drinking-related dependence symptoms phenotype. These significant variants spanned across the entire 7 ADH gene cluster regions. Two significant associations, one in ADH and one in ALDH2, were observed with alcohol dependence diagnosis. Seventeen variants showed significant association with the largest number of alcohol drinks ingested during any 24-hour period. Variants in or near ADH7 were significantly negatively associated with alcohol-related phenotypes, suggesting a potential protective effect of this gene. In addition, our results suggested that a higher degree of NA ancestry is associated with higher frequencies of potential risk variants and lower frequencies of potential protective variants for alcohol dependence phenotypes.

KEYWORDS:

admixture; alcohol metabolizing enzymes; alcoholism; low coverage sequencing

PMID:
25270064
PMCID:
PMC4364382
DOI:
10.1002/ajmg.b.32272
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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